SPH 106 Ch 9-10 Test

Question Answer
all channel network communication network pattern in which group members are frequently together and share all information with one another
authoritarian leadership style a leadership style in which the designated leader uses legitimate, coercive, and reward power to dictate the groups actions and influence others
chain network a communication network in which information passes sequentially from one member to another
coercive power the power to influence others by the threat or imposition of unpleasant consequences; power that comes from the ability to punish
connection power the influence granted by virtue of member's ability to develop relationships that help the group reach its goal
democratic leadership style is a style in which the nominal leader invites the group/members participation in decision making
dysfunctional roles prevent a group from working effectively
emergent leader a member who assumes leadership roles without being appointed by higher-ups
expert power comes from a members knowledge that he or she can help the group reach its goal.
formal role these are assigned by an organization or group partly to establish order, they usually come with a label; ex: treasurer, assistant coach
gatekeepers person in a small group through whom communication among other members flow
group a small collection of people whose members interact with one another, usually face-to-face, over time in order to reach goals
group goals are the outcomes you seek to accomplish together
hidden agendas individual goals that group members are unwilling to reveal
individual goals are the personal motives of each member of the group
informal role describe functions of communication by each member, but are rarely acknowledged by the group in words
laissaz-faire leadership style a style in which the designated leader gives up his or her formal role, transforming the group into a loose collection of individuals
leadership grid a two-dimensional model that identifies leadership styles as a combination of concern for people and for the task at hand
legitimate power comes from a members knowledge that he or she can help the group reach its goal; leaders status or position gives them right to make requests where others must comply
nominal leader the person who is identified by title as leader of the group
norms are the unspoken standards; the unwritten shared values, beliefs, behaviors, and procedures that govern a groups informal operation. (Unstated)
power is the ability to influence others
procedural norms guide operations and decision making (ex: we always meet on time, or when there's a disagreement, we try to reach consensus before voting)
referent power the ability to influence others by virtue of the degree to which one is liked or respected; power that derives from attraction to the leader
reward power the ability to influence others by the granting or promising of desirable consequences
roles the patterns of behavior expected of group members
rule an explicit, officially stated guideline that governs group functions and member behavior
servant leadership a style based on the idea that a leader's job is mostly to recruit outstanding team members and provide the support they need to do a good job
situational leadership a theory that argues that the most effective leadership style varies according to leader-member relation, the nominal leader's power, and the task structure
social loafing the tendency of some people to do less work as a group members than they would as individuals
social norms group norms that govern the way members relate to one another
social roles group norms that govern the way members relate to one another
sociogram a graphic representation of the interaction patterns in a group
task norms group norms that govern the way members handle the job at hand
task roles roles group members take on in order to help solve a problem
trait theories of leaderhsip a school of thought based on the belief that some poeple are born to be leaders and others are not
transformational leaders defined by their devotion to help a team fulfill an important mission
virtual groups people who interact with one another via mediated channels, without meeting face-to-face
wheel network a communication network in which a gatekeeper regulates the flow of information from all other members
participative decision making a process in which people contribute to the decisions that will affect them
cohesiveness the totality of forces that causes members to feel themselves part of a group and make them want to remain in that group
orientation stage when group members become familiar with one another's positions and tentatively volunteer their own
conflict stage when group members openly defend their positions and question those of others
emergence stage when a group moves from conflict toward a single solution
reinforcement stage when group members endorse the decision they have made
breakout groups used when number of members is too large for effective discussion to maximize effective participation
problem census used when some members are more vocal than others; equalizes participation by listing ideas on cards to be drawn at random
focus groups often used by sponsoring organizations to learn how potential users or the public at large regards a new product or idea
parliamentary procedure observes specific rules about how topics may be discussed and decisions made
panel discussion participants discuss the topic informally, as in an ordinary conversation
symposium participants divide the topic in a manner that allows each member to deliver in-depth information without interruption
forum allows nonmembers to add their opinions to the group's deliberations before the group makes a decision
dialogue a process in which people let go of the notion that their ideas are more correct or superior to others' and instead seek to understand an issue from many different perspectives
force field analysis a method of problem analysis that identifies the forces contributing to resolution of the problem and the forces that inhibit its resolution
brainstorming a method for creatively generating ideas in groups by minimizing criticism and encouraging a large quantity of ideas without regard to their workability or ownership by individual members
nominal group technique each member generates own ideas silently before sharing
consensus agreement among group members about a decision
information underload the decline in efficiency that occurs when there is a shortage of the information necessary to operate effectively
information overload the decline in efficiency that occurs when the rate of complexity of material is too great to manage
groupthink a group's collective striving for unanimity that discourages realistic appraisals of alternatives to its chosen decision
idea writing each member adds 3-4 ideas to a list, gets feedback, then comes up with a better list
Traits of a leaderpsychical sex, height, appearance
Traits of a leaderpsychosocial self-esteem, self-monitoring, outgoingness
communication apprehension anxiety or fear about communicating with others
Leadership stylesautocratic leaders see themselves as having both the authority and responsibility to take action on the groups behalf
informational power power stems from the ability to control access to information
types of small groups (4) informational,growth,social,problem-solving

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