Chp 23 metabolism/nu

Question Answer
Calorie Measure of heat1cal=amount of heat required to raise temp of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius
Kilocalorie Unit of calorie used to measure human diet1 kilocalorie= amount of heat to raise temp of 1kg of water by 1 degree Celsius
Metabolism Sum of body's reactions
Catabolism Series of reactions where one substance is broken down into smaller parts
Anabolism Series of actions in which molecules are combined to make a larger molecule
Three types of nutrients monomers to generate ATP Glucose, Fatty Acids, Amino acids
Cells use smaller molecules to build larger macromolecules such as: Proteins, Nucleic acids, lipids, & carbohydrates
Metabolic rate Total amount of energy expended by body to power all of its processes
Metabolic rate is measured in units of heat or calories
Metabolic rate Determined by measuring oxygen consumption
Metabolic rate Related to amount of energy generated & heat produced
Basal metabolic rate Rate of metabolism for awake individual
Measurements of Basal metabolic rate
Not eaten past 12 hrs/restful night of sleep
Measurements of basal metabolic rate No physical/strenuous activity for 1hr
Measurements of basal metabolic rate Not under physical/emotional stress
Measurements of basal metabolic rate Temperature is constant/comfortable
Factors that affect metabolic rate Thyroid hormones, growth hormones, fever, nutritional status, physical activity, certain drugs
Factors that affect metabolic rate Basal metabolic rate-_gender & muscle mass
Radiation Transfers heat from one object to another through electromagnetic wave
Conduction Heat transferred from one object to another through direct contact
Convection Heat is transferred through a liquid/gaseous medium
Evaporation Water changes from liquid to gas
Radiation exs Microwave, sun
Conduction exs Me sitting in a chair
Convection exs Stove
Evaporation ex Sweating
Importance of Thermoregulation Must be maintained to ensure all body systems work
Core body temperature
Deep body temperature such as liver/brain
Body temperature average 37.5 A°C
Nutrient Molecules from food that body needs for metabolic processes
Essential nutrients Not produced by body must come from dietary sources
Macronutrients Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids
Micronutrients Vitamins, minerals
Vitamins 13 organic compounds required for body's functions
Water soluble vitamins Hydrophilic compounds ft polar covalent bonds
Fat-soluble vitamins Hydrophobic compounds similar to cholesterol
Fat soluble vitamins Vitamin A,K,E,D
Water soluble vitamins Vitamins C, B
Minerals Any element other than carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,nitrogen
Importance of minerals Important in physiological processes & optimal health
Importance of Cholesterol Produce vitamin D, steroid hormones, bile salts
How liver processes cholesterol Packaged with other lipids & proteins into structures called lipoproteins
How liver process cholesterol Liver synthesize 85% of cholesterol w/ diet contrib. 15%

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