chapter 6 terms

Term Definition
somatic cell cell that makes up all of the body tissues and organs, except gametes.
gamete sex cell; an egg or a sperm cell
homologous chromosome chromosomes that have the same length, appearance, and copies of genes, although the alleles may differ
autosome chromosome that contains genes for characteristics not directly related to the sex of the organism
sex chromosome chromosome that directly controls the development of sexual characteristics.
sexual reproduction process by which two gametes fuse and offspring that are a genetic mixture of both parents are produced
fertilization fusion of an egg and sperm cell
diploid cell that has two copies of each chromosome, one from an egg and one from a sperm
haploid cell that has only one copy of each chromosome.
meiosis form of nuclear division that divides a diploid cell into haploid cells; important in forming gametes for sexual reproduction.
gametogenesis process by which gametes are produced through the combination of meiosis and other maturational changes
sperm male gamete
egg female gamete
polar body haploid cell produced during meiosis in the female of many species; these cells have little more than DNA and eventually disintegrate

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